Dreyfus, Alfred

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Portrait of Alfred Dreyfus (click to view image source)
Alfred Dreyfus
(to view image author and license, click here)
Name
Dreyfus, Alfred Gender: M
Abraham Israel Dreÿfuss
born on 9 October 1859 at 15:00 (= 3:00 PM )
Place Mulhouse, France, 47n45, 7e20
Timezone LMT m7e20 (is local mean time)
Data source
Quoted BC/BR
Rodden Rating AA
Collector: Rodden
Astrology data s_su.18.gif s_libcol.18.gif 15°46' s_mo.18.gif s_piscol.18.gif 18°29 Asc.s_aqucol.18.gif 09°23'



Biography

French military officer whose charge of treason and subsequent exile to Devil’s Island penal colony became a symbol for the rising anti-Semitic sentiment in Europe. The fight to prove his innocence lasted 12 years, becoming notorious as The Dreyfus Affair. He was denied a hearing until his plight became a national cause, causing rifts between intellectuals not only in France but in all of Europe and the United States. It unleashed racial violence and led to the publication of history's most famous call for justice addressed to the President of France by Emile Zola, who was to become in the words of Anatole France "the conscience of mankind." The repercussions of the Affair were felt worldwide for decades to come.

Albert Dreyfus was the seventh and youngest child of Jeannette and Jacob Dreyfus, industrialist. The Alsatian Jewish family loosened its ties to Judaism in order to strengthen its ties with France, during a period when anti-Semitic sentiment reached an increasing fervor in Europe.

From the time that he was ten and watched German soldiers enter the city, the boy wanted to be a soldier, He entered Ecole Polytechnique in 1878, becoming a Lieutenant in 1882 and rising to the rank of Captain in1889. He attended the Ecole de Guerre 1890-’92 when he graduated ninth in his class. Dreyfus joined the general staff of the Ministry of War in 1893 where he was the only Jewish officer. The following year, he transferred to Army Intelligence.

In 1890, Dreyfus married Lucie Hadamard, an accomplished pianist and a young woman with a more traditional Jewish background than he, observing Jewish Holy Days and her biblical study. She was unshakably loyal to her husband throughout the Affair and in later life, devoted much of her time to Jewish causes. Their son Pierre was born in 1891 and daughter Jeanne in 1893.

While Alfred Dreyfus was a captain in the French army, he was found to have a letter meant for the German army, selling French secrets to them. On 10/15/1894, he was arrested on grounds of high treason. He was court-martialed and was convicted on 12/22/1894, stripped of his rank, publicly degraded and deported to the penal colony of Devil's Island to serve a sentence of life imprisonment in total isolation and under inhumane conditions. He arrived on the island on 4/13/1895.

The French soon forgot the case; however, his family protested the decision and was determined to bring about a revision of the trial by working to find evidence pointing to the real traitor. This case greatly changed France and divided the country into two sides. Public sentiment ran high, an outraged cry for justice versus rampant anti-Semitic riots in which Jews were stoned and effigies burned.

On 11/25/1897, Emile Zola published his first article in support of Dreyfus. For his defense of the young Captain, Zola was tried and given a year in jail; he fled to England. During the Affair, public figures resigned; there were suicides and assassinations and many careers were ruined as new evidence came out.

A few years later, Alfred's brother, who worked ceaselessly for his freedom, compared the letter to the handwriting of another army officer, Comte. Esterhazy and found that the two matched. He made this new information known, and years later Dreyfus was exonerated. He had been framed because it was actually some higher army officers who had written the letter and needed someone to blame. Finally, a retrial was ordered on 6/03/1899 by the United Court of Appeals, revoking the 1894 verdict. During the Rennes trial, August 7 to September 9, Dreyfus was declared guilty again and condemned to public degradation and another ten years imprisonment.

Polish and Russian pogroms continued, heralding, in 1902, widespread massacres of Jewish communities, and on September 2, Zola died mysteriously at home from asphyxiation.

On 4/04/1903, Jean Jaurès demanded in the Chamber of Deputies a revision of the Rennes verdict, but it was another long three years – 7/12/1906 – before the Supreme Court of Appeal in Paris annulled the Rennes verdict and declared Dreyfus innocent of all the charges against him.

On 7/13/1902, Parliament voted to reinstate Dreyfus into the Army and a week later he was awarded the Legion of Honour at public ceremony.

His name was finally cleared.

Dreyfus died 7/11/1935, Paris.

Link to Wikipedia biography

Relationships

  • benefactor relationship with Zola, Émile (born 2 April 1840)

Events

  • Social : Begin a program of study 1878 (Entered Ecole Polytechnique)
  • Work : Gain social status 1882 (Lieutenant)
  • Work : Gain social status 1889 (Captain)
  • Social : Begin a program of study 1890 (Entered Ecole de Guerre, three years)
  • Relationship : Marriage 1890 (Lucie Hadamard)
  • Family : Change in family responsibilities 1891 (Son Pierre born)
  • Work : New Job 1893 (General staff of Ministry of War)
  • Family : Change in family responsibilities 1893 (Daughter Jeanne born)
  • Work : New Job 1894 (Army Intelligence)
  • Other Crime 14 October 1894 (Arrested on suspicion of spying for Germany.)
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  • Crime : Trial dates 22 December 1894 (Convicted/sentenced to Devil's Island)
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  • Social : Institutionalized - prison, hospital 13 April 1895 (Arrived on Devil's Island)
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  • Social : Great Publicity 25 June 1897 (Publication released by Zola)
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  • Social : Joined group 13 July 1902 (Reinstated into Army)
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  • Crime : Trial dates 12 July 1906 (Supreme Court declares innocence)
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  • Death, Cause unspecified 11 July 1935 at 12:00 noon in Paris, France (Age 75)
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Source Notes

Philip Lucas quotes Luc de Marre for B.C., Mercury Hour 10/l979. LMR confirmed the data with Luc de Marre, who stated B.C.#1319 in hand.

(Britannica 2001 Deluxe Edition CD gives: b. Oct. 19, 1859, Mulhouse, Fr. d. July 12, 1935, Paris. Formerly, Constellations '77 gave October 14, 1859, 05:45 AM LMT "from his wife as quoted in "L'Echo Du Mervilleiux Vol 4, p.429, published 1899." Penfield Collection quoted Gauquelin for the data that Constellations '77 had: data not found in Gauquelin.)

Categories

  • Family : Childhood : Family large (Seven kids)
  • Family : Childhood : Order of birth (Seventh of seven)
  • Family : Relationship : Mate - Noted (Pianist Lucie Hadamard)
  • Family : Parenting : Kids 1-3 (Two)
  • Passions : Criminal Perpetrator : Civil/ Political (Unjustly accused)
  • Passions : Criminal Perpetrator : Prison sentence (Sent to Devil's Island)
  • Passions : Criminal Victim : Social crime victim (Political victim, scapegoat)
  • Personal : Religion/Spirituality : Western (Jewish)
  • Vocation : Military : Military service (Captain, Army Intelligence)
  • Notable : Awards : Medals (Legion of Honour)
  • Notable : Famous : Criminal cases (Internationally famed case)
  • Notable : Book Collection : Crime Collection

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